Deploying
WordPress
Like a Pro

By Alberto Varela

Who is speaking?

Travioor

Alberto Varela, currently working at Travioor

www.berriart.com | alberto@berriart.com | @artberri

Websites VS Professional Websites


Done stamp

Websites VS Professional Websites


Done stamp

Deployments VS Professional Deployments


Done stamp

Deployments VS Professional Deployments


How?

The 'Dogma'

The developers are the only people who are responsible for the code

People that should not upload code:

  • The client
  • The marketing department
  • The CEO / The boss
  • Matt Mullenweg

But WP is so powerful, why restrict it?

wp-config.php

You should disallow modifications from the admin panel.


<?php

// Disable the Plugin and Theme Editor
define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_EDIT', true );
// Disable Plugin and Theme Update and Installation
define( 'DISALLOW_FILE_MODS', true );
// Disable All Automatic Updates
define( 'AUTOMATIC_UPDATER_DISABLED', true );

                        

You can find more info about configuration constants in the Wordpress Codex.

Version Control System

Git

Self hosted, Github, Bitbucket, Gitlab, VSO...

Subversion

No Pull Requests :(

Managing dependencies

Composer + WPackagist


# composer.json
{
    "name": "mycompany/brilliant-wordpress-site",
    "repositories":[
        {
            "type": "composer",
            "url": "https://wpackagist.org"
        }
    ],
    "require": {
        "php": ">=5.4",
        "johnpbloch/wordpress": "^4.5",
        "wpackagist-plugin/wordpress-seo": "^3.2",
        "wpackagist-plugin/mailchimp-for-wp": "^3.1",
        "wpackagist-theme/yourparenttheme": "^1.3",
    }
}
                        

WP-CLI could be another option to manage dependencies.

Your code: Themes & Plugins

  • All your code should be organized in Themes & Plugins, and it's the only code that should be in the source control.
  • Don't modify any dependency. Not plugins, neither themes. Use hooks, actions and child themes to override them.

Branching and pull requests

  • Git workflows: Centralized, Feature Branch, Gitflow, Forking Workflow...
  • Implement code review with pull requests. Check this list of rules to enhance your code review process.

The 'Rule'

There is not any manual step in the deployment process

No more "Works on my machine"

  • Make your definition of "done" clear.
  • Replicate your production environment: Vagrant, Docker, Puppet, Chef,...
  • Create staging environments

Deployment Tools / Task Runners

Example with Deployer

Install it with composer:


composer require --dev deployer/deployer
composer require --dev deployphp/recipes
                        

Your composer.json should now include a reference to the dependencies:


# composer.json
# ...
    "require-dev": {
        "deployer/deployer": "^3.2",
        "deployphp/recipes": "^3.1",
    },
# ...
                        

Example with Deployer

Configure your deploy steps in the deploy.php file:


<?php
// deploy.php
require 'recipe/common.php';
require 'vendor/deployphp/recipes/recipes/configure.php';
require 'vendor/deployphp/recipes/recipes/rsync.php';

set('shared_dirs', [
    'wp-content/uploads',
    'wp-content/cache',
]);
set('shared_files', [
    'wp-config.php',
]);
set('writable_use_sudo', false);
set('http_user', 'deploy');
env('rsync_src', __DIR__ . '/src');
set('rsync', [
    'exclude' => [
        'wp-content/upgrade',
        'wp-content/cache',
        'wp-config.php',
        'wp-content/uploads',
    ],
]);
set('keep_releases', 5);

task('deploy', [
  'deploy:prepare',
  'deploy:release',
  'deploy:configure',
  'rsync',
  'deploy:shared',
  'deploy:symlink',
  'cleanup',
])->desc('Deploy project');
after('deploy', 'success');

serverList(__DIR__ . '/servers.yml');
                        

Example with Deployer

Configure your deployment credentials and servers in the servers.yml file:


# servers.yml
staging:
  host: staging.sinrumbofijo.com
  user: deploy
  identity_file:
    public_key:  deploy_rsa.pub
    private_key: deploy_rsa
    password:    ''
  stage: staging
  deploy_path: /home/www/staging.sinrumbofijo.com
  app:
    url: http://staging.sinrumbofijo.com
    root: /home/www/staging.sinrumbofijo.com/current
    db:
      name: 'staging_database_name'
      user: 'staging_database_user'
      pass: 'staging_database_pass'
      host: 'staging_database_host'
    secret:
      auth_key: 'write a better secret here'
      secure_auth_key: 'write a better secret here'
      logged_in_key: 'write a better secret here'
      nonce_key: 'write a better secret here'
      auth_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      secure_auth_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      logged_in_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      nonce_salt: 'write a better secret here'

production:
  host: www.sinrumbofijo.com
  user: deploy
  identity_file:
    public_key:  deploy_rsa.pub
    private_key: deploy_rsa
    password:    ''
  stage: staging
  deploy_path: /home/www/www.sinrumbofijo.com
  app:
    url: http://www.sinrumbofijo.com
    root: /home/www/www.sinrumbofijo.com/current
    db:
      name: 'production_database_name'
      user: 'production_database_user'
      pass: 'production_database_pass'
      host: 'production_database_host'
    secret:
      auth_key: 'write a better secret here'
      secure_auth_key: 'write a better secret here'
      logged_in_key: 'write a better secret here'
      nonce_key: 'write a better secret here'
      auth_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      secure_auth_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      logged_in_salt: 'write a better secret here'
      nonce_salt: 'write a better secret here'

                        

Example with Deployer

And now, deploy is as simple as:


./vendor/bin/dep deploy staging
                        

./vendor/bin/dep deploy production
                        

Continous Integration Tools

You can see a detailed comparison in Stackshare.

Example with Snap.CI

  • I like Snap because of its implementation of the 'Deployment Pipeline' concept.
  • Software as a Service.
  • Free for Open Source projects.
  • Jenkins (free) or TeamCity (freemium) are probably the best options for a self-hosted tool.

Example with Snap.CI

https://snap-ci.com/artberri/sinrumbofijo/branch/master

Example with Snap.CI

Example with Snap.CI

Example with Snap.CI

The 'Better'

There is not any manual step in the QA / Test process

Before Deployment

Linting

Ensure all the team use the same (and the proper) coding conventions with PHP_CodeSniffer, it will also help you avoid some errors.

Install PHP_CodeSniffer with composer:


composer require --dev squizlabs/php_codesniffer
composer require --dev wp-coding-standards/wpcs:dev-master
                            

# composer.json
# ...
    "require-dev": {
        "squizlabs/php_codesniffer": "^2.6",
        "wp-coding-standards/wpcs": "dev-master",
    },
# ...
                            

Linting

Configure your rules in the phpcs.xml file.


<!-- phpcs.xml -->

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<ruleset name="PHP_CodeSniffer">
  <description>The coding standard for PHP_CodeSniffer itself.</description>

  <file>src/wp-content/themes/your-theme</file>
  <file>src/wp-content/plugins/your-plugin1</file>
  <file>src/wp-content/plugins/your-plugin2</file>

  <arg name="report" value="summary"/>
  <arg value="np"/>

  <rule ref="PEAR.WhiteSpace.ScopeIndent">
    <properties>
      <property name="indent" value="2"/>
    </properties>
  </rule>

  <rule ref="vendor/wp-coding-standards/wpcs"/>
</ruleset>
                            

Linting

Add the task to your task runner.


<?php
// deploy.php

require 'recipes/qa.php';

                            

<?php
// recipes/qa.php

task('qa:phpcs', function () {
  $output = runLocally('./vendor/bin/phpcs');
  writeln('' . $output . '');
})->desc('Run PHPCS');

task('qa', [
  'qa:phpcs',
])->desc('Code quality checks');

                            

Linting

Other linting tools:

Unit Testing

Do the things right

Yes, you can (should) unit test your themes and plugins.

Use PHPUnit and WP_Mock.

WP_Mock is built and maintained by 10up where Lucy Tomas works, she is giving a talk after lunch

Unit Testing

Install them with composer:


composer require --dev phpunit/phpunit
composer require --dev 10up/wp_mock:dev-master
                            

# composer.json
# ...
    "require-dev": {
        "phpunit/phpunit": "^4.8",
        "10up/wp_mock": "dev-master",
    },
# ...
                            

Unit Testing

Configure phpunit in the phpunit.xml file.


<!-- phpunit.xml -->

<phpunit bootstrap="tests/bootstrap.php">

  <testsuites>
    <testsuite name="projectname">
      <directory>tests</directory>
    </testsuite>
  </testsuites>

  <filter>
    <whitelist processUncoveredFilesFromWhitelist="true">
      <directory suffix=".php">src/wp-content/themes/your-theme</directory>
    </whitelist>
  </filter>

  <logging>
    <log type="coverage-html" target="reports/html/phpunit/coverage" lowUpperBound="35"
        highLowerBound="70"/>
    <log type="coverage-text" target="php://stdout" showUncoveredFiles="false"/>
    <log type="junit" target="reports/phpunit.results.xml" logIncompleteSkipped="false"/>
  </logging>

</phpunit>
                            

Unit Testing

Add the task to your task runner.


<?php
// recipes/qa.php

task('qa:phpunit', function () {
  $output = runLocally('./vendor/bin/phpunit');
  writeln('' . $output . '');
})->desc('Run PHPUnit');
task('qa:phpcs', function () {
  $output = runLocally('./vendor/bin/phpcs');
  writeln('' . $output . '');
})->desc('Run PHPCS');
task('qa', [
  'qa:phpcs',
  'qa:phpunit',
])->desc('Code quality checks');

                            

Execute:


./vendor/bin/dep qa
                            

Add them to your building pipeline

After Deployment

Functional Testing

Do the right things

Yes, you can (should) do functional testing on your Wordpress website.

Use Behat, Mink, Goutte and Selenium.

Functional Testing

Install them with composer:


composer require --dev behat/behat
composer require --dev behat/mink-extension
composer require --dev behat/mink-goutte-driver
composer require --dev behat/mink-selenium2-driver
composer require --dev se/selenium-server-standalone
                            

# composer.json
# ...
    "require-dev": {
        "behat/behat": "~3.0.6",
        "behat/mink-extension": "^2.2",
        "behat/mink-goutte-driver": "^1.2",
        "behat/mink-selenium2-driver": "^1.3",
        "se/selenium-server-standalone": "^2.53"
    },
# ...
                            

Functional Testing

Configure Behat in the behat.yml file.


# behat.yml
default:
  extensions:
    Behat\MinkExtension:
      base_url: 'http://yoursite.local'
      browser_name: 'firefox'
      sessions:
        default:
          goutte: ~
        browser:
          selenium2: ~
      javascript_session: 'browser'
    emuse\BehatHTMLFormatter\BehatHTMLFormatterExtension:
      name: html
      renderer: Twig,Behat2
      file_name: index
      print_args: true
      print_outp: true
      loop_break: true
  formatters:
    pretty: true
    html:
      output_path: %paths.base%/reports/html/behat
staging:
  extensions:
    Behat\MinkExtension:
      base_url: 'http://staging.yoursite.com'
production:
  extensions:
    Behat\MinkExtension:
      base_url: 'http://www.yoursite.com'
                            

Functional Testing

Define some tests (and implement them of course)


@mink:browser
Feature: Article
    In order to interact with the author
    As a user
    I need to be able to read and comment articles or navigate to related info

    Background:
        Given I am on the homepage
        And I hover over the element ".smartlib-grid-list article.post .wp-post-image"
        And I click on ".smartlib-grid-list article.post .smartlib-caption-link"

    @smoke
    Scenario: See sections
        Then I should see "Deja un comentario"
        And I should see "Entradas relacionadas"
        And I should see "Entradas recientes"

    Scenario: Make a comment
        When I fill in the following:
        | author | Testuser |
        | email | test@example.com |
        | url | http://example.com |
        And I fill in "comment" with 15 random words
        And I press "Publicar comentario"
        Then I should see "Testuser"
                            

Functional Testing

Add the task to your task runner.


<?php
// recipes/at.php

task('at', function () {
  $stage = env('app.stage');
  $testCommand = './vendor/bin/behat';
  if ('dev' != $stage) {
    $testCommand .= ' --profile=' . $stage;
  }

  $seleniumPid = runLocally('nohup ./vendor/bin/selenium-server-standalone > /dev/null 2> /dev/null & echo $!');
  writeln('Selenium running with pid: ' . $seleniumPid . '');

  writeln('Waiting until selenium is started');
  $output = runLocally('sleep 7');
  writeln('Selenium started');

  $output = runLocally($testCommand, 600);
  writeln('' . $output . '');

  $output = runLocally('kill ' . $seleniumPid);
  writeln('Selenium stopped');
})->desc('Run Acceptance Tests');

                            

Execute:


./vendor/bin/dep at staging
                            

Add them to your building pipeline

Add them to your building pipeline

Uhm... And Database? You didn't talk about it.

Finally, we have implemented...

Continous Delivery

Finally, we have implemented...

Continous Deployment

Continous Delivery
VS
Continous deployment

Take a look at this post for more info.

Links of a full example


Good job!

Thank you

Thank you

Any Questions?

https://www.berriart.com/talks/wordpress-deployment/